History of Forests in Florida
In 1782, the year before the British government ceded Florida to Spain for the Bahama Islands, Francis Philip Fatio was one of the first persons to recognize the value of Florida’s forests. He prepared a report for the Government of the Province of East Florida. Fatio’s report is valuable because of the insight it provides on the early history of forestry in Florida.
Born in Switzerland on August 6, 1724, Fatio studied law at the University of Geneva but developed a distaste for that profession and abandoned his studies to pursue a military career. He served as a lieutenant in the Swiss Guards and in France during the War of the Austrian Succession. He later moved to England where he became fascinated by glowing accounts of the British Province of Florida.
In 1771, he chartered a vessel and sailed with his family to St. Augustine, purchasing a large stone house on the bay where they settled. Assisted by his eldest son, he proceeded to the St. John’s River where he started three plantations to cultivate indigo, extract turpentine, plant orange groves, and raise sheep. He kept a ship constantly traveling between the New and Old Worlds, carrying raw products of the one and bringing back the comforts and luxuries of the other.
Fatio’s report to the British government was titled, Considerations on the Importance of the Province of East Florida to the British Government by its Situation, its Produce in Naval Stores, Ship Lumber, and the Asylum it may afford to the Wretched and Distressed Loyalists. He describes the region’s potential as follows:
“The barren lands now occupied in East Florida produce the best naval stores in all America. The St. John’s River is navigable nearly 300 miles, running parallel to the Atlantic Ocean, nowhere distant more than 25 miles. The forests on these lands will produce any quantity of tar, pitch and turpentine; it would be easy to find substantial contractors for 100,000 barrels a year produced from the different species of pine, allowing a reasonable time at first, as the exportation in 1781 has not exceeded 30,000 barrels.
“Experience has taught us how to remedy that vast destruction of timber, and proper provincial laws should be made to prevent setting on fire the pine-bearing lands, to regulate the boxing of trees for turpentine, to prohibit the extirpating of the young saplings, and to fix the number of trees that should remain on every acre.
“Straggling hunters and cattle keepers set those pine-bearing lands on fire in the winter and early in the spring to make new pastures for the cattle, which graze the whole year round, or to prepare hunting grounds and to attract the deer.
“Unless the planters have thoroughly cleaned and cleared their turpentine tracts from all weeds, dry grass and other combustibles, the fire, scorching the coagulated turpentine and rosin on the trees, destroys in an instant those prepared for green tar and wastes immense tracts of land which will remain useless for ages to come.
“The yellow pine of East Florida is remarkably large, straight and of fine grain – rather heavy for single stick or large mast. For made masts, I humbly apprehend, it would be very proper as it is easy to find large trees free of all kinds of knots – from 40 to 50 feet in length – for deck planks no wood is equal to it. I had some sawed above 40 feet, free of knots and clear of heart shake.”
Interestingly, compared with the situation of the turpentine and lumber industries in Florida during the 1930s and 1940s, Fatio’s findings are startlingly similar.
1502- Florida appeared on the earliest known map of the New World.
1565- St. Augustine established by the Spanish. Native materials were largely used to construct buildings, including cypress for timbers. Slaves were imported from Havana for sawing timber. The earliest sawmills were no more than huge pits where one man stood at the top and another at the bottom and sawed great logs into planks.
1665- Orange seeds brought by the Spanish were broadcast among hammocks by the Indians where they grew as well as in southern Europe.
1743- Timber trade begins at Pensacola with a shipment of pitch, turpentine, and two pine spars, each 84 feet long, bound for Havana by schooner.
1763- Florida ceded to England by Spain. Pensacola consisted of about 100 palmetto thatched huts and a barracks for a small garrison, the whole surrounded by a stockade of pine posts and a few gardens. The forest extended right up to the village and considerable money was spent by the English government to develop the region. As a result, most of the people remained loyal during the War of American Independence. Plantations were established on the east coast and along the St. John’s River. Considerable commercial activity in Pensacola had begun with exports of pine timber and lumber, cedar, staves, and shingles.
1781- West Florida again under Spanish rule.
1783- Florida is ceded to Spain by England
1819- A water-powered sawmill is built on Six Mile Creek near Jacksonville. Like other water-powered sawmills of the period, it consisted of a saw set vertically in a frame actuated by a large waterwheel and operated much the same as older, man-powered saw pits.
1821- Florida formally ceded to the United States by Spain. Americans were among the first settlers in Florida after its cession. They engaged in live-oak timber and logging operations along the St. Johns River, around Pensacola Bay, and along the Gulf coast.
1824- The United States Government sent several vessels to Florida to prevent the illegal cutting of live-oak trees. It was difficult to detect the depredations owing to the length of the coast and to the numerous inlets, rivers, bays, and harbors.
1827- Florida’s Joseph M. White delegate to Congress presented a plan for the preservation and planting of live-oak trees to conserve this valuable source of timber. A live-oak “nursery” of some 60,000 acres was established the following year near Pensacola and operated for 3 years.
1829- First steam sawmill in east Florida was built at Panama on Trout Creek.
1830- Florida’s population reached 34,730.
1835-1842- Second Seminole War.
1845- Florida admitted the 27th state in the Union.
1850- First circular sawmill in east Florida was established near Jacksonville.
1860- Florida’s population reached 140,424. There were 87 sawmills, with sawmill products valued at $1,476,645 annually. Cotton, lumber, and naval stores were the principal commodities being transported by boat and railroad.
1861-1865- Civil War.
1870- Commerce and manufacturing were confined to localities near the mouths of rivers. Transport other than by boat or railroad was by ox team over sand roads. Sawmills obtained most of their timber supply from land adjacent to streams. Almost two-thirds of the manufactured lumber came from the Pensacola region.
1880- Florida’s population totaled 269,493; Sawmills, 135; Naval stores plants, 10; Sawmill production, 248 million feet. Timber land all along the southern coast was available from the United States government for $1.25 an acre. In typical lumber operations, only the best trees were cut and the choicest parts utilized. As for hardwoods, some oak and hickory were being shipped, but otherwise not much use was made of them. In northern markets, cypress and red gum were subjects of derision, and the black gum or tupelo family was not even known by name.
1890s- The naval stores industry rose to prominence in Florida. A number of Lake States timber operators were attracted by the pine and cypress stands in the state. The Florida East Coast Railroad was extended to Miami, at that time, consisting of an Indian trading post with two dwellings — a storehouse and a small stone fort. The U.S. Bureau of Forestry called attention to the enormous destruction of pine timber by the box system of turpentining. Dr. Charles Herty, a young chemistry professor, was hired to investigate improved methods. With improved transportation facilities, a fruit and vegetable industry based on northern winter markets was showing encouraging growth.
1900- The Society of American Foresters (SAF) was organized in Washington, D.C.
1901- The first paper was made from southern pine in Pensacola; enterprise lasted about 3 years.
1903- A Pure Spirits of Turpentine Act was passed by the Florida Legislature forbidding adulteration of turpentine with kerosene or other mineral spirits. John C. Gifford became the first professional forester and SAF member resident in Florida; he would later teach (1931-1949) tropical forestry at the University of Miami.
1905- Jacksonville took the lead from Savannah as a principal naval stores port.
1908- Florida became part of U.S. Forest Service’s District 3 (headquarters in Albuquerque). Proclamations established the Ocala and Choctawhatchee National Forests.
1909- Lumber production in Florida reached a peak of 1.25 billion board feet, of which less than 4 million was hardwood. A preliminary examination of forest conditions of Florida (by Nelson C. Brown, USFS) was conducted at request of Florida Governor Albert W. Gilchrist and summarized in an 86-page report.
1910s- Florida continued to produce lumber at the rate of about a billion board feet annually. The state was transferred to USFS District 7 (Washington, D.C.). Naval stores production ranged from 350,000 barrels of turpentine and over a million barrels of rosin in 1912, to 125,000 barrels of turpentine and 414,000 barrels of rosin in 1918.
1911- A proclamation combined the Ocala and Choctawhatchee national forests and renamed the combination the Florida National Forest.
1919- Southern Foresters’ Conference convened in Jacksonville on July 3-4.
1921- The Florida Forestry Association was established; in 1937 the name was changed to Florida Forest and Park Association.
1923- A branch unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Southern Forest Experiment Station was established at Starke and initiated research on naval stores production under Lenthall Wyman. From 1923 to 1931, Austin Cary (USFS) acted as a roving missionary preaching good forest practices to Florida’s large industrial landowners.
1924- Jacksonville gave way to Savannah as the principal naval stores port.
1926- Forest Fires in Florida by Harry Lee Baker, published by the Florida Forestry Association in cooperation with the USFS.
1927- The Florida Board of Forestry established. The Ninth Southern Forestry Congress met at Jacksonville. James D. Lacey and Company established a branch office in Jacksonville and represent the first private forestry consultants in Florida which employed professional foresters Sherwood J. Hall, Joseph E. Woodman, and Sigurd E. Fogelberg. A proclamation redivided the Florida National Forest and components reverted to their original names, Ocala National Forest and Choctawhatchee National Forest.
1928- The Southern Section of SAF formed (it included Florida, Alabama, and Georgia). Harry Lee Baker appointed as the first State Forester of Florida.
1928-1931- Southern Forest Educational Project under W.C. McCormick conducted by the American Forestry Association in cooperation with state forestry organizations of Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Florida woodland fire protection began on large “group unit” acreages owned by a number of individuals willing to help pay costs.
1931- Research Center of USFS established at Lake City. A large, modern mill for the production of kraft pulp and paper began operation in Panama City. USFS (Southern Forest Experiment Station) transferred its research center from Starke to Lake City near its Olustee Experimental Forest. Verne L. Harper led a program to investigate forest management problems of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. A proclamation established the Osceola National Forest. The St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge established by the USDA Bureau of Biological Survey (later the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service).
1932- Florida’s annual production of lumber dropped to 320 million board feet after a 3-year nationwide economic depression. Assistant Dean Wilmon L. Floyd, Head of the Department of Horticulture (College of Agriculture, University of Florida), begins teaching an “Introduction to Forestry” course (1932 to 1935).
1933- The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) established.
1934- A survey of forest resources was begun by the USFS as part of a regional and nationwide study; field work completed in 1936 and a report compiled. The survey found that 67% of the state’s land area was still forest land 400 years after arrival of the first white men. Second-growth stands occupied three-fifths of the forest area and 25% was classified as completely denuded. Volume of standing saw timber was 23 billion board feet, of which 60% was pine, 24% hardwood, and 16% cypress. Forest industries included 84 large and medium-size sawmills, 518 small mills, 44 veneer, 17 cooperage, and 93 miscellaneous establishments. There were also five treating plants, 10 stumpwood distillation plants, one pulp mill, and 305 turpentine stills. Florida transferred to the auspices of USFS Region 8 in Atlanta.
1935- The Bear Hammock crown fire in Ocala National Forest sand pine traveled 20 miles linearly from a single start in 3 hours — probably a record — driven by winds averaging 45 mph; spread stopped at Lake George, winds shifted 90 degrees, but 35 thousand acres burned before heavy rains extinguished the fire; numerous 200-foot fire breaks and a state highway failed to slow the spread.
Austin Cary was a nationally known forestry pioneer. He worked for the U.S. Forest Service, state forest organizations, forestry schools, and private companies, and was recognized for his work on southern forests and naval stores.
Cary was born in East Machias, Maine, on 31 July 1865. His journeys included all the forest types within the United States, plus those explored during his three trips to Europe. Cary frequently referred to his early training in the Maine woods where lumbering was a standard activity for old New England stock. His uncles were lumbermen, and he could recall evenings in their camps before stoves were used, when fire for warmth and cooking was always in the middle of the camp under “a big smoke hole”.
At 18, Cary entered Bowdoin University where he obtained an A.B. Degree in 1887, an A.M. Degree in 1890, and an honorary Sc.D. in 1922. He studied biology at Johns Hopkins and Princeton universities, and was instructor in the Department of Geology and Biology at Bowdoin in 1887-88. He also taught at the Yale School of Forestry during the 1904 spring term, and in the winter of 1905-06 he was in charge of a senior class of Harvard University foresters.
Cary often recalled that he had never heard the word “forester” until the year 1892, when he was 27. Dr. B.E. Fernow, in charge of the Bureau of Forestry in Washington, D.C., helped Cary in this new profession. Cary was employed as a surveyor and investigator in Maine and elsewhere, including conducting a field study in Michigan and Wisconsin during the winter of 1895 when he was gathering pine stem analyses data for Fernow’s Bureau.
In 1895 Cary put in a full season in the woods near Androscoggin River in Maine, writing up results for the state land agents report of the next year. This helped enlarge his reputation, and in 1898 he accepted employment with the Berlin Mills Company, a large lumber business in Maine. He was the first forester employed by a forest products industry in America. During his 6 years with the company, Cary visited the Pisgah Forest in North Carolina to make observations and to survey, map, and cruise some 150,000 acres there.
Cary frequently referred in the notes he had made on his travels abroad. He was much impressed with his first trip to Germany in 1897, noting that forestry started in Germany around the 1820s when the commercially isolated country set on the idea of national self-sufficiency and regulated order. During 1924, Cary made a trip to Spain and France with representatives of the American Naval Stores Commission, where he made many interesting observations. Upon his return, he continued his activities in the naval stores industry of the South where he would experiment with the French methods of turpentining.
Cary was a prolific writer. In 1903, he published one of his first technical papers, entitled “Note on Relative Frost Hardiness.” (Forestry Quarterly 1903, Vol. 2, No. 1). Numerous other technical and professional articles by Cary appeared in the Forestry Quarterly, the Proceedings of the SAF, and later in the Society’s’ Journal of Forestry. In 1909, Cary published the first issue of his Woodsman’s Manual under the title “Manual of Northern Woodsman.” It was in such demand that the volume was reprinted in the years 1918, 1924, 1932, 1935, and 1942.
In 1910, Cary was appointed as Logging Engineer for the U.S. Forest Service in Washington, D.C., marking the beginning of a new chapter in his life. He had become a pioneer on the somewhat practical side of forestry, but from 1910 his influence broadened into every forest region of the U.S. His travels included the Inland Empire forest region, Lake States region, the Pacific Coast where he talked with lumbermen, students, and private forest land owners.
Cary first visited the South in the fall of 1917. He came to recognize the South’s potential as a major timber growing region of the U.S. and saw a role for himself in communicating this to southern people. With great physical and mental energy, Cary contacted timber owners, spoke at meetings, studied the most vital and practical natural factors, and wrote on these issues. In 1924, he was elected a Fellow in the Society of American Foresters at a time when there were less than a dozen Fellows in the entire Society.
When he retired from active duty with the Forest Service (on 31 July 1935), he settled in Lake City, Florida, renting a room in the old Blanche Hotel. He resumed employment in the private sector, first as a consultant to the Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company of Century, Florida, and later to include the Miller Mill Company, Brewton, Alabama, and the Jackson Lumber Company, Lockhart, Alabama. He himself was a forest land owner who had amassed several thousand acres in Florida by 1936. Cary’s land is today owned by the State of Florida under management of the Division of Forestry as the present-day Cary State Forest in Nassau County, between Baldwin and Callahan.
Cary lectured students of the Department of Forestry during a field trip near Starke in April 1936 at the site of one of his many naval stores experiments only on one occasion. He recalled his early career when he had “scratched along,” surviving winter temperatures of below zero in Maine, Michigan, and Wisconsin, which was not always easy, but nevertheless he was “carving out a future,” in spite of the fact that he “punished himself.” Only a week after the lecture, on April 28, 1936, at 10:40 a.m., Dr. Cary was stricken by a heart attack on the second floor of the AES building while on a visit with Professor Harold S. Newins. In spite of his apparent good health, he died at age 71, clutching in one hand an autographed copy of his Manual; in the other, a book he had used during the students’ lectures, “Hellements of Hickonomics in Hiccoughs of Verse Done in Our Social Planning Mill,” by Stephen Leacock. It is interesting to note that in his automobile, among other things, he had fishing tackle, a can of sardines, and a box of crackers, indicative of his level of readiness for field trips and outdoor recreation.
Dr. Cary’s body was interred in Lake City where funeral services were held on Wednesday, April 29. Attending were brother George F. Cary, representatives from the USFS, the Florida Forest Service, the Department of Forestry of the University, and others.
Cary was a close personal friend of Professor Newins and had given him much assistance in establishing the Forestry Department. Cary visited the campus to discuss his work with Newins and students frequently. He was known as a practical forester who had his feet on the ground at a time when more theoretical foresters were not always economically sound. He foresaw the great promise in the pine lands of the Southeast. His work among naval stores operators was renown. He was a first-class teacher, whether working with practical woods operators or university students.
In 1960, Dr. Roy R. White wrote his Ph.D. dissertation at the University on the career of Austin Cary. The following paragraph is taken from that dissertation:
“Judged solely as a forester, Cary deserves the highest rank, but his role as a champion of the South demands even greater recognition. In the generation since his death, the progress of southern forestry and forest industries unmistakably bear the imprint of his work. Forest history will record the South’s fond remembrance of, and respectful gratitude to, the ‘Yankee peddler of forestry’, Austin Cary.”
Professional schools are required to provide practical training and experimental facilities to supplement students classroom and laboratory teaching experience. The School of Forestry needed a forest to put into practice the theories and principles of its academic subjects such as protection, silviculture, mensuration, management, economics and others. This section describes how the Austin Cary Memorial Forest came into existence.
In 1936, there was an abundance of forest land within Alachua County for sale at low prices, some of it was tax delinquent. Even so, these lands were beyond the financial resources of the struggling Forestry Department and of the University as well. The Florida Board of Forestry, a friend of the Forestry Department, had excess funds in its 1934-36 biennial budget. Early in 1936, the Board authorized the purchase of 1,519 acres of forest land located along the Seaboard Railroad 12 miles north of Gainesville, between Fairbanks and Waldo. The Board conveyed title to this land and jurisdiction over it to the University of Florida and its Department of Forestry.
The land was typical of longleaf-slash pine timber lands of the naval stores belt; its former owners were largely naval stores operators. One of them, Louis E. Mize, of Fairbanks, is notable for selling the 40-acre block containing a lake, now appropriately named Lake Mize, for a nominal sum — a very generous arrangement. An adjacent 524 acres were purchased in 1938 with state funds; the total 2,043 acres thus met the 2,000-acre minimum set by the Society of American Foresters to entitle the School of Forestry to be ranked as a “Grade A” forest school. Purchased for less than $12,000, University President John J. Tigert and the State Board of Forestry recognized the appropriateness of naming it “The Austin Cary Memorial Forest,” to honor Dr. Cary.
The first order of business was to fence the area and institute fire protection under the supervision of a full-time superintendent. The land had been logged-over from about 1900 to 1906. Later, the second-growth and cull trees were turpentined for about 16 years. Cattle grazing was common in the area after logging, and repeated burning kept the forest floor open for grazing and turpentining. After 1938, there was an insufficient number of trees more than 9 inches dbh to continue turpentining until a growing stock could be built-up.
In 1939, the Work Progress Administration (WPA) built roads, buildings, and water draining ditches. And 100,000 board feet of pine and 80,000 cypress shingles were logged from the forest and processed at the School’s sawmill.
The primary aim of timber management has been to strive for adequate reproduction through protection and to increase stocking of the forest. Students have used the area as an outdoor classroom to acquire field knowledge and experience. Other uses have been for experimental and demonstrational purposes. Toward these ends, periodic timber harvests have been conducted since about 1950, with early cuttings concentrating on thinning to remove old naval stores trees and for stand improvement.
The Austin Memorial Cary Forest is a valuable natural laboratory of the University of Florida for forest resource education, demonstration, and research. In 1987 a rustic 3,200-sq.ft. teaching-conference center was completed on the grounds where class lectures and conferences are today commonplace. The unusually broad range of forest types, existing and possible, affords a rare opportunity for educating forestry students, informing laymen, and stimulating research projects on the management of forests common to Florida and to the lower Coastal Plain region. Realization of the full potential of the Austin Cary Memorial Forest requires a substantial commitment in the future to address the wide diversity of ecosystem and management practices.
As mentioned earlier, Austin Cary succumbed to a heart attack on the campus of the University of Florida just 3 months shy of his 71st birthday, in 1936. His death came approximately 8 months after his retirement from the U.S. Forest Service, for whom he had worked continuously for the previous 25 years. With his passing, the nation lost a pioneer forester, one who had served forestry, the Forest Service, and the Society of American Foresters with distinction. Before his death, this Society had recognized Dr. Cary’s attainments by electing him a Fellow in 1924. However, the truth of the matter was that he had been a first in so many phases of forestry that it was only after he died that the magnitude of his achievements become recognized. He was credited with being a teacher, a public servant, and the first American forester to be employed by the American forest industry. His achievements are further enhanced when one reflects upon the basic character of the man himself, his innate simplicity, his directness, and his lack of pretension. Many people have evaluated his achievements highly. As for his own characterization of his life, he with all due modesty was content to say, “I have lived in good times.”
Dr. Cary’s presence on the campus of the University of Florida at the time of his death, plus his interests and efforts on behalf of forestry education in Florida, led Professor Harold Newins of the School of Forestry to inaugurate to perpetuate the memory of this important pioneer. A first step was to petition the Board of Control of the University of Florida to name the recently acquired (5 months after Cary’s death) School Forest the “Austin Cary Memorial Forest.”
But this was not enough. Dr. Cary, having been active and eminent in his profession, the spontaneous feeling arose among many members of the Society of American Foresters that his life and work should be commemorated. This feeling was especially strong in the South where he had lived and worked for years. Consequently, the Southeastern Section of the SAF appointed a committee to develop a suitable memorial. T.A. Liefeld, who at that time was an employee of the U.S. Forest Service at Lake City, was named chairman. The Southeastern Section’s efforts were strengthened immeasurably when the parent Society voted at its December 1936 annual meeting in Portland to establish a memorial to Austin Cary.
In accordance with the wishes of the Society, President H.H. Chapman appointed an Austin Cary Memorial Committee: C.H. Coulter, Tallahassee; A.B. Hastings, Washington, D.C.; E.F. Jones, Bangor, Maine; A.E. Wackerman, New Orleans, Louisiana; J.B. Woods, Washington, D.C.; and H.S. Newins, Gainesville. The Committee was authorized to act on behalf of the Society and the friends of Austin Cary. Within a year of Dr. Cary’s death, a nationwide effort to honor him had developed. Although this effort was sustained on the broadest possible base, including both professional foresters and friends of Dr. Cary’s, the SAF remained the driving force and the focal point that brought all interests together.
The Memorial Committee investigated all aspects of their tasks, coming up with a plan before selecting the Austin Cary Forest in Gainesville as the most suitable site for a tribute to Dr. Cary. Their plan, designed by W.H. Reinsmith, a U.S. Forest Service landscape architect, was simple and eminently suitable. It provided for a bronze plaque on a large boulder to be set upon coquina flagstones shaped in the form of the official Forest Service shield and sited in a grove of 71 slash pine trees centered in a 10-acre, park-like area at the entrance to the Forest. Adjacent was a simple wooden cabin housing a display of Dr. Cary’s writings, field instruments, and other interesting objects and mementos. In building the memorial, native materials were used, with the exception of a granite boulder transported from East Machias, Maine — Dr. Cary’s birthplace.
Execution of the site plan depended upon funds donated by friends of Dr. Cary both within and outside the Society. The work progressed as donations were received. By January 1939 the essential form of the memorial had taken shape. Roads had been built, markers erected at the entrance and along the highway, the granite boulder had been received from Maine, and the bronze plaque attached thereto. Appropriately enough, the wording on the bronze plaque was prepared by T.A. Liefeld, Chairman of the original Austin Cary Memorial Committee of the Southeastern Section. The inscription read as follows:
DR. AUSTIN CARY
1865 – 1936
THE SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORESTERS AND FRIENDS
OF DR. AUSTIN CARY HAVE ERECTED THIS MEMORIAL
IN DEEP APPRECIATION OF HIS UNENDING INTEREST
AND EFFORT TOWARDS THE PROMOTION OF SOUND
FORESTRY PRACTICES IN THE UNITED STATES.
Dedicated January 14, 1939, the memorial took 25 months to conclude after the Society had approved the project.
Anonymous, 1935. Men Who Make Florida. The Herald, Miami, Florida.
University of Florida Records, 1936 and 1937. Vol. 31 and 32, respectively.
Struthers, O., 1936. Dr. Austin Cary Dies While On Visit To University. Gainesville Daily Sun, Gainesville, Florida.
Newins, H.S., 1936. The Life of Austin Cary. Austin Cary Memorial Forestry Collection. Florida Historical Records Survey Division of Community Service Programs. Work Projects Administration, Jacksonville, Florida.
Newins, H.S., 1936. The Teaching of Forestry. Jacksonville Times Union, Jacksonville, Florida.
Anonymous, 1936. College Forest to be Named for Dr. Austin Cary. Jacksonville Times Union, Jacksonville, Florida.
Anonymous, 1936. University Tract Named In Memory of Dr. Austin. Gainesville Daily Sun, Gainesville, Florida.
Newins, H.S., 1937. Forestry Education at the University of Florida. Slash Pine Cache 1:9-13.
Newins, H.S., 1937. The Austin Cary Memorial. Journal of Forestry 119:624-630.
Ziegler, E.A., 1937. Austin Cary Memorial Forest. The Florida Times Union, Jacksonville, Florida.
Anonymous, 1937. Forest Entrance. Waycross Journal-Herald, Gainesville, Florida.
Neumann, D., 1938. History of Forestry Club. Slash Pine Cache 1:22.
Newins, H.S., 1938. Progress in the Austin Cary Memorial Forest. 5-page note presented over WRUF, Gainesville, Florida.
Therkildson, W.F., 1938. Men Who Make Florida. The Herald, Miami, Florida.
Watson, O., 1938. Sketches of the First Annual Field Day. Slash Pine Cache 1:23.
Anonymous, 1939. Dedication to E.A. Ziegler. Slash Pine Cache 2:4-5.
Anonymous, 1939. Tau Alpha Nu, Honorary Forestry Fraternity. Slash Pine Cache 2:29.
Anonymous, 1939, The Father of Forestry in Florida. (newspaper clipping).
Smoak, G.W., 1939. The work of the Florida Forest and Park Association. Slash Pine Cache 2:33-34.
Newins, H.S., 1939. The School Grows Up. Slash Pine Cache 2:10-11.
Ziegler, E.A., 1939. The Society of American Foresters Southern Section. Slash Pine Cache 2:30-31.
Anonymous, 1940. School and Faculty activities. Slash Pine Cache 3:24-25.
Stover, W.S., 1940. In Twice the Life of a Pine. Slash Pine Cache 3:30-33.
Wilson, H.M., 1940. What the Forest and Park Association stands for. Slash Pine Cache 3:8-9.
Byrd, R.E., 1941. The Southern Shade Tree Conference. Slash Pine Cache: 4:59.
Grubbs, J., 1941. 1940 Summer Camp. Slash Pine Cache 4:39-42.
Hammett, F.R., 1941. UF Forestry Head Man of Experience. Gainesville Daily Sun, Gainesville, Florida.
Stewart, D., 1941. The School. Slash Pine Cache 4:53.
Dougherty, D.A., 1942. School Progress. Slash Pine Cache 5:46-48.
Newins, H.S., 1942. New Wood Products Laboratory at University of Florida Ready to Begin Service to Lumbermen. Southern Lumber Journal for April 1942, Jacksonville, Florida.
Ziegler, E.A., 1942. The Welaka Wildlife Forest. Slash Pine Cache 5:54-55.
Forth, F.F., 1943. Priorities and Progress. Slash Pine Cache 6:8-10.
Newins, H.S., 1950. Forestry Fate Depends on School. Times-Union, Jacksonville.
Anonymous, 1951. Newins to retire June 15 as director of the University’s School of Forestry. Gainesville Daily Sun, Gainesville, Florida.
Anonymous, 1954. Memorial Fund at Florida School Dedicated to Lewisburg Man. Pensacola News, Florida.
Anonymous, 1957. Expanded Program Aim of Florida U. Forestry School. Tampa Morning Tribune.
Frazer, P.W., 1959. Slash Pine Cache 18:49-51.
Reitz, J.W., 1960. Forestry and the University. Papers presented at the 25th Anniversary of the School of Forestry, UF. Florida Forestry Association, Gainesville, Florida.
White, R.R., 1960. Austin Cary and Forestry in the South. Ph.D. Dissertation presented to the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Office of the Director, 1962. Subseries 25a, Administrative Policy Records, 1935-1961, 22 boxes.
Frazer, P.W., 1963. Dedication to H.S. Newins. Slash Pine Cache 21:1-2.
Durell, P.B., 1974. History of the School of Forestry. Letter to Dr. John L. Gray.
Frazer, P.W., 1975. Incomplete and Tentative List of High-Lights in History of School of Forestry (1935-1974). A two-page note to the faculty of SFRC, Gainesville, Florida.
Frazer, P.W., 1975. Professional Forestry Education at the University of Florida. A six-page note to the faculty of SFRC, Gainesville, Florida.
Frazer, P.W., 1975. Who was Austin Cary and what is the Austin Cary Memorial. 10-page note to SFRC Faculty.
Kreher, R.H., 1980. We Are The Boys From Old Florida. Pictural History of the University of Florida.
1980. The Katharine Ordway Preserve. University of Florida. Folder in SFRC Director’s Office.
Grosenbaugh, L.R., 1983. History of the Florida Society of American Foresters. 25-page booklet published by the Florida Society of American Foresters.
1983. Faculty List. A 51-page IFAS faculty list. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF, Gainesville.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 1984. Significant Dates in the History of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation. Listed events by year.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 1985. Three-page note with information about the SFRC.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Fifty Years of Forestry Education, IFAS, UF, 1985.
Huffman, J.B., 1986. History of Forestry, 1920-1985. Memorandum to Arnett C. Mace, Jr.
Labisky, R.F., 1988. Wildlife and Range Sciences Comprehensive Review Syllabus. School of Forest Resources and Conservation, IFAS, UF.
Riekerk, H., 1988. Publications, Dissertations, and Theses from the Austin Cary Forest, and Past, Ongoing and Planned Studies. Memorandum to SFRC and Emeritus Faculty.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 1988, 1989. Austin Cary Memorial Forest Management Plans. Properties Committee.
Newspaper Enterprise Association. 1989 The World Almanac and Book of Facts. Scripps Howard Co, New York.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 1989. Faculty list. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture. IFAS, University of Florida.
Frazer, P.W., 1990. Harold S. Newins-Biographical Sketch. Personal letter to Loukas G. Arvanitis.
Mazourek, J., 1991. Interview with P.W. Frazer on Florida Forestry Education, Gainesville, Florida.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 1992. Faculty list. Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences. IFAS, University of Florida.
Hale, Kay, 1993. Master’s Thesis and Ph.D. Dissertations. School of Forest Resources and Conservation Student Services Office, 24 pp.
Labisky, R.F., 1994. Professional Vita.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, 1994. Inaugural Program. The John Gray Fund For Excellence In Forest Resources And Conservation. Department of Agricultural Education and Communication.
Lindberg, Monica, 1994. Past Faculty of School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida. A Photographic Collection.
Valavanis, V.D., 1994. Interview with P.W. Frazer on Florida Forestry Education. Gainesville, Florida.
School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Self-Evaluation Reports – 1994. UF, June, 1977; November, 1982; August, 1988; February, 1994. Presented to the Accreditation Committee of the Society of American Foresters.